**AFCAT Syllabus 2022**: Air Force Common Admission Test (AFCAT) is conducted twice annually by the Indian Air Force to recruit officers in the Flying, Technical, Administration, and Logistics branches for Permanent and Short Service Commissioned officers. recruits. Every year lakhs of candidates apply for this exam and appear in exam. All you need is the right approach and proper strategy to crack this exam.

AFCAT Exam consists of 100 questions carrying a total of 300 marks, which will be asked in English, General Awareness, Military Aptitude, Reasoning, and Mathematics.

## About the AFCAT Examination

Every year Indian Air Force will conduct AFCAT Examination twice a year.

The AFCAT Question Paper will have 100 questions. The total duration of the examination is 2 hours. Each Question Paper will have questions from the following topics:-

(a) English. Comprehension, Error Detection, Sentence Completion/Filling in of correct words, Synonyms, Antonyms, and Testing of Vocabulary, Idioms, and Phrases.

(b) General Awareness. History, Geography, Civics, Politics, Current Affairs, Environment, Basic Science, Defence, Art, Culture, Sports, etc

(c) Numerical Ability. Decimal Fraction, Time & Work, Average, Profit & Loss, Percentage, Ratio & Proportion and Simple Interest, Time & Distance (Trains/Boats & Streams)

(d) Reasoning and Military Aptitude Test. Verbal Skills and Spatial Ability

### AFCAT Examination Marking Scheme

Marking Scheme is categorized as follows:

- Three marks will be awarded for every correct answer
- One mark will be deducted for every incorrect answer
- No marks for unattempted questions

### EKT Paper (Engineering Knowledge Test Paper)

The EKT Question Paper will have 50 questions. The total time allotted for the paper is forty-five minutes (45 minutes)

**Syllabus for Computer Science Engineering**

**Fundamental Engineering**

1. Engineering Mathematics. Matrix Algebra, Eigen values, and Eigen vectors,

Theorems of integral calculus, Partial derivatives, Maxima and minima, Multiple integrals, Stokes, Gauss, and Green’s theorems. First order differential equation (linear and nonlinear), Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Complex variables, Taylor’s and Laurent’s series, Sampling theorems, Mean, Median, Mode, and Standard deviation, Random variables, Discrete and Continuous distributions, Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform.

2. Engineering Physics. Units for measurement, Description of Motion in One, Two, and Three Dimensions, Laws of Motion, Work, Energy and Power, Rotational Motion, Gravitation, Heat and Thermodynamics, Electrostatics, Electric Current, Magnetic Effect of Currents, Magnetism \Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents and Electromagnetic Waves, Ray Optics and Optical Instruments.

3. Engineering Drawing. Projection of straight lines, planes, and solids, Intersection of surfaces, Isometric Projection, Sectional Views of solids, Full section, Introduction to ComputerAided Drafting.

**Specialization Branch Topics**

4. Analog and Digital Electronics. Characteristics of diodes, BJT, FET, JFET and MOSFET, Amplifiers – biasing, equivalent circuit and frequency response, Oscillators and feedback amplifiers, Operational amplifiers characteristics and applications, Simple active filters, VCOs and timers, Combinational and sequential logic circuits, Multiplexer, Schmitt trigger, Multi-vibrators, Sample and hold circuits, A/D and D/A converters, 8-bit microprocessor basics, architecture, programming, and interfacing.

5. Electronic Devices. Energy bands in Silicon, Intrinsic and extrinsic Silicon, Carrier transport in Silicon – diffusion current, drift current, mobility, and resistivity. Generation and recombination of carriers, p-n junction diode, Zener diode, tunnel diode, BJT, JFET, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, PIN and avalanche photo diode, Basics of LASER.

6. Computer Networks. ISO/OSI stack, LAN technologies (Ethernet, Token ring), Flow and error control techniques, Congestion control, TCP/UDP and sockets, IPv4, Application layer protocols (ICMP, DNS, SMTP, pop, FTP, HTTP), Basic concepts of hubs, switches, gateways, and routers. Network security – basic concepts of public key and private key cryptography, digital

signature, firewalls. Basic concepts of client-server computing.

7. Network Theory Design. Thevenin’s, Norton’s, Reciprocity, Superposition, Compensation, Miller’s, Tellegen’s, and Maximum power transfer theorems. Impulse, step, ramp, and sinusoidal response analysis of first order and second order circuits. Two port parameters and their interrelations, Application of Laplace transform and Fourier series in the context of network analysis, Network synthesis.

8. Switching Theory. Traffic definitions, Introduction to switching networks, classification of switching systems. Grade of Service and blocking probability, Basics of Circuit switching and packet switching. Network traffic load and parameters, Modelling of switching systems, Incoming traffic and service time characterization, Blocking models and loss estimates, Delay systems – Markovian queuing model, M/M/1 model, Limited queue capacity, Multiple servers, Finite sources, Queue discipline.

9. Information Technology. Operating System – Processes, threads, interprocess communication, Concurrency, Synchronization, Deadlock, CPU scheduling, Memory management and virtual memory, File systems, I/O systems, Protection, and security. RDBMS – ER-model, Relational model (relational algebra, tuple calculus), Database design (integrity constraints, normal forms), Query languages (SQL), File structures (sequential files, indexing, B and B+ trees), Transactions and concurrency control. Software engineering – Information gathering, requirement, and feasibility analysis, data flow diagrams, process specifications, input/output design, process life cycle, planning and managing the project, design, coding, testing, implementation, and maintenance. Programming in C, Object Oriented Programming, basics of computer graphics.

**Allied Engineering:**

10. Electrical Engineering. Single phase transformer – equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, tests, regulation and efficiency, Auto-transformer, Energy conversion principles, DC machines – types, windings, generator characteristics, armature reaction, and commutation; Servo and stepper motors, Synchronous machines, Generators –regulation and parallel operation.

11. Control Engineering. Application of open loop and closed loop systems, Principles of feedback, Determination of transfer function by block diagram reduction method, Time domain analysis of first and second order systems, transient and steady-state errors, damping and

oscillations.

12. Telecommunication Systems. Analog communication – amplitude and angle modulation and demodulation systems, Superheterodyne receivers, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), Fundamentals of information theory, and channel capacity theorem. Digital communication systems – Pulse Code Modulation (PCM), Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM), Digital modulation schemes: amplitude, phase, and frequency shift keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK), Basics of TDMA, FDMA, and CDMA. Fundamentals of mobile communication. Fundamentals of optical fiber communication.

13. Microwave Engineering. Waveguides, Klystrons, Travelling Wave Tubes, Magnetron, Introduction to microstrip lines, Microwave semiconductor devices, Monolithic microwave integrated circuits.

14. Antenna and Wave Propagation. Antenna parameters, Effective length and aperture, Gain, Beamwidth, Directivity, Radiation resistance, Efficiency, Polarization, Impedance and Directional characteristics of antennae, Reflection, refraction, interference, and diffraction of radio waves. Fundamentals ground wave, space wave, sky wave, and troposcatter propagation.

15. Radar Theory. Radar range equation, Frequencies of operation, Fundamentals of Moving Target Indicator (MTI), Pulse Doppler Radar, Tracking radar.

16. Instrumentation. Accuracy, precision, and repeatability, Electronic instruments for measuring basic parameters, Theory of Oscilloscopes, Signal generators, Signal analyzers, Characteristics, and construction of transducers.

### Syllabus for Electrical and Electronics Engineering

**Fundamental Engineering**

1. Engineering Mathematics. Matrix Algebra, Eigen values and Eigen vectors, Theorems of integral calculus, Partial derivatives, Maxima and minima, Multiple integrals, Stokes, Gauss, and Green’s theorems. First order differential equation (linear and nonlinear), Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Complex variables, Taylor’s and Laurent’s series, Sampling theorems, Mean, Median, Mode, and Standard deviation, Random variables, Discrete and Continuous distributions, Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform.

2. Engineering Physics. Units for measurement, Description of Motion in One, Two, and Three Dimensions, Laws of Motion, Work, Energy and Power, Rotational Motion, Gravitation, Heat and Thermodynamics, Electrostatics, Electric Current, Magnetic Effect of Currents, Magnetism, Electromagnetic Induction, and Alternating Currents and Electromagnetic Waves, Ray Optics and Optical Instruments.

3. Engineering Drawing. Projection of straight lines, planes, and solids, Intersection of surfaces, Isometric Projection, Sectional Views of solids, Full section, Introduction to ComputerAided Drafting.

**Specialization Branch topics:**

4. Analog and Digital Electronics. Characteristics of diodes, BJT, FET, JFET, and MOSFET, Amplifiers – biasing, equivalent circuit and frequency response, Oscillators and feedback amplifiers, Operational amplifiers – characteristics and applications, Simple active filters, VCOs and timers, Combinational and sequential logic circuits, Multiplexer, Schmitt trigger, Multi-vibrators, Sample and hold circuits, A/D and D/A converters, 8-bit microprocessor basics, architecture, programming, and interfacing.

5. Electrical Engineering. Single phase transformer – equivalent circuit, phasor diagram, tests, regulation and efficiency, Three phase transformers – connections, parallel operation, Autotransformer; Energy conversion principles, DC machines – types, windings, generator characteristics, armature reaction, and commutation, starting and speed control of motors, Single phase and Three phase induction motors – principles, types, performance characteristics, starting and speed control, Starting motors, Servo and stepper motors, Synchronous machines Generators – performance, regulation, and parallel operation.

6. Electronic Devices. Energy bands in Silicon, Intrinsic and extrinsic Silicon, Carrier transport in Silicon – diffusion current, drift current, mobility, and resistivity. Generation and recombination of carriers, p-n junction diode, Zener diode, tunnel diode, BJT, JFET, MOS capacitor, MOSFET, LED, PIN and avalanche photo diode, Basics of LASER. Device technology – integrated circuits fabrication process, oxidation, diffusion, ion implantation, photolithography, n-tub, p-tub, and twin-tub CMOS process.

7. Control Engineering. Application of open loop and closed loop systems, Principles of feedback, Determination of transfer function by block diagram reduction method, Time domain analysis of first and second order systems, transient and steady-state errors, damping and oscillations, Routh and Nyquist techniques, Bode plots, Root loci, Lag, lead and lead-lag compensation, State space model, State transition matrix, Controllability, and observability.

8. Telecommunication Systems. Random signals and noise – probability, random

variables, probability density function, autocorrelation, power spectral density. Analog

communication – amplitude and angle modulation and demodulation systems, spectral analysis of

these operations, superheterodyne receivers, elements of hardware, realizations of analog

communication systems, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) calculations for AM and FM. Fundamentals of

information theory and channel capacity theorem. Digital communication systems – Pulse Code

Modulation (PCM), Differential Pulse Code Modulation (DPCM), Digital modulation schemes:

amplitude, phase, and frequency shift keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK), matched filter receivers,

Bandwidth consideration and probability of error calculations for these schemes. Basics of TDMA,

FDMA and CDMA. Fundamentals of mobile communication. Fundamentals of optical fiber

communication.

9. Microwave Engineering. Waveguides, Waveguide components, Klystrons, Travelling Wave Tubes, Magnetron, Microwave measurements, Introduction to microstrip lines, Microwave network analysis, Microwave semiconductor devices, Monolithic microwave integrated circuits.

10. Antenna and Wave Propagation. Antenna parameters, Radiation from a current element in free space, Reciprocity theorem, Resonant and non-resonant antenna, Effective length and aperture, gain, beamwidth, directivity, radiation resistance, efficiency, polarization, impedance and directional characteristics of the antenna, and antenna temperature. Phased array antenna, Mechanism of radio wave propagation, Reflection, refraction, interference, and diffraction of radio waves. Theory of ground wave, space wave, sky wave, and troposcatter propagation.

**Allied Engineering Topics:**

11. Instrumentation. Accuracy, precision, and repeatability, Electronic instruments for measuring basic parameters, Theory of Oscilloscopes, Signal generators, Signal analyzers, Characteristics, and construction of transducers.

12. Computer Networks. ISO/OSI stack, LAN technologies (Ethernet, Token ring), Flow and error control techniques, Congestion control, TCP/UDP and sockets, IPv4, Application layer protocols (ICMP, DNS, SMTP, pop, FTP, HTTP); Basic concepts of hubs, switches, gateways, and routers.

13. Network Theory Design. Thevenin’s, Norton’s, Reciprocity, Superposition, Compensation, Miller’s, Tellegen’s, and Maximum power transfer theorems. Impulse, step, ramp, and sinusoidal response analysis of first-order and second-order circuits. Two-port parameters and their interrelations, Application of Laplace transform and Fourier series in the context of network analysis, Network synthesis.

14. Switching Theory. Traffic definitions, Introduction to switching networks, classification of switching systems. Grade of Service, Basics of Circuit switching and packet switching.

15. Information Technology. Fundamentals of the operating system, RDBMS terminologies, Object-Oriented Programming, Basics of computer graphics.

16. Radar Theory. Radar range equation, Frequencies of operation, fundamentals of Moving Target Indicator (MTI), Pulse Doppler Radar, Tracking radar.

### Syllabus for Mechanical Engineering

**Fundamental Engineering:**

1. Engineering Mathematics. Matrix Algebra, Eigen values and Eigen vectors, Theorems of integral calculus, Partial derivatives, Maxima and minima, Multiple integrals, Stokes, Gauss, and Green’s theorems. The first-order differential equation (linear and nonlinear), Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Complex variables, Taylor’s and Laurent’s series, Sampling theorems, Mean, Median, Mode, and Standard deviation, Random variables, Discrete and Continuous distributions, Fourier transform, Laplace transform, Z-transform.

2. Engineering Physics. Units for measurement, Description of Motion in One, Two, and Three Dimensions, Laws of Motion, Work, Energy and Power, Rotational Motion, Gravitation, Heat and Thermodynamics, Electrostatics, Electric Current, Magnetic Effect of Currents, Magnetism, Electromagnetic Induction, and Alternating Currents and Electromagnetic Waves, Ray Optics and Optical Instruments.

3. Engineering Graphics/Engineering Drawing. Principles of orthographic projections, projections of points, lines, planes, and solids, Section of solids, Isometric views, Auto-CAD.

**Specialization Topics:**

4. Engineering Mechanics. Equations of equilibrium in space and its application; first and second moments of area; simple problems on friction; kinematics of particles for plane motion; elementary particle dynamics. Generalized Hooke’s law and its application; design problems on axial stress, shear stress, and bearing stress; material properties for dynamic loading; bending shear and stresses in beams; determination of principle stresses and strains – analytical and graphical; material behavior and design factors for dynamic load; design of circular shafts for bending and torsional load only; deflection of beam for statically determinate problems; theories of failure.

5. Thermodynamics. The basic concept of the First –law and second law of Thermodynamics; are the concept of entropy and reversibility; availability and unavailability and irreversibility. Classification and properties of fluids; incompressible and compressible fluids flows; effect of Mach number and compressibility; continuity momentum and energy equations; normal and oblique shocks; one-dimensional isentropic flow; flow or fluids in duct with frictions that transfer. Flow-through fans, blowers, and compressors; axial and centrifugal flow configuration; design of fans and compressors

6. Theory of Machines. Kinematic and dynamic analysis of plane mechanisms. Cams, Gears and epicyclic gear trains, flywheels, governors, balancing of rigid rotors, balancing of single and multicylinder engines, linear vibration analysis of mechanical systems (single degree of freedom), Critical speeds, and whirling of shafts. flywheels, balancing of rotors and reciprocating machinery, balancing machines, governors, free and forced vibration of damped and undamped single degree of freedom systems, isolation, whirling of shafts, gyroscope.

7. Fluid mechanics/Hydraulic Machines. Fluid flow concepts – Transport theorem – Fluid kinematics – Potential flow – Governing equations of Fluid flow – Dimensional Analysis – Viscous flow – Boundary Layer flows – Turbulence – Closed conduit flows – Hydrodynamic lubrication – Free surface flow – Compressible flows, Hydraulic Turbines: Impulse and Reaction Turbines – Centrifugal and Axial flow pumps.

8. Manufacturing Science. Foundry Technology, Melting furnaces, Special casting processes, Gating, and riser design, Casting defects, Arc welding, TIG, MIG, submerged arc, resistance welding, Gas welding, Flash butt welding, Solid-state welding, Welding metallurgy, Forming Technology, Powder metallurgy.

9. Materials Science. Basic concepts on structure of solids; common ferrous and nonferrous materials and their applications; heat treatment of steels; non-metals- plastics, ceramics, composite materials, and nano-materials.

10. Machine Drawing. Development and Intersection of surfaces, Conventional representation of machine elements, materials, surface finish, and tolerances – Sectional views and additional views – Drawing of Screw threads, locking devices, Fasteners, Keys and Cotters, Knuckle joints, Riveted Joints, Shaft Couplings, and Bearings – Pipe Joints, Assembly and production drawings.

**Allied engineering:**

11. Automotive Engineering. Introduction, power plant, fuel system, electrical system and other electrical fittings, lubricating system and cooling systems, chassis and transmission, axles, clutches, propeller shafts and differential, Condition for correct steering, steering gear mechanisms, automotive air conditioning, Tyres, the effect of working parameters on knocking, reduction of knocking; Forms of the combustion chamber for SI and CI engines; rating of fuels; additives; emission.

12. Power Plant Engineering. The steam power plant, steam boilers, steam condensers, cooling towers, cogeneration, combined cycles, nuclear power plants, hydroelectric power plants, and power plant economics.

13. Industrial Engineering. System design: factory location- simple OR models; plant layout – methods based; applications of engineering economic analysis and break-even analysis for product selection, process selection, and capacity planning; predetermined time standards. System planning; forecasting methods based on regression and decomposition, design and balancing of multi-model and stochastic assembly lines; inventory management – probabilistic inventory models for order time and order quantity determination; JIT systems; strategic sourcing; managing inter plant logistics.

14. Flight Mechanics. Atmosphere: Properties, standard atmosphere. Classification of aircraft. Airplane (fixed-wing aircraft) configuration and various parts. Airplane performance: Pressure altitude; equivalent, calibrated, indicated air speeds; Primary flight instruments: Altimeter, ASI, VSI, Turn-bank indicator. Drag polar; takeoff and landing; steady climb & descent,-absolute and service ceiling; cruise, cruise climb, endurance or loiter; load factor, turning flight, V-n diagram; Winds: head, tail & cross winds. Static stability: Angle of attack, sideslip; roll, pitch & yaw controls; longitudinal stick fixed & free stability, horizontal tail position, and size; directional stability

15. Aircraft Structures. Stress and Strain: Equations of equilibrium, constitutive law, strain displacement relationship, compatibility equations, plane stress and strain, Airy’s stress function. Flight Vehicle Structures: Characteristics of aircraft structures and materials, torsion, bending, and flexural shear. Flexural shear flow in thin-walled sections. Buckling. Failure theories. Loads on aircraft. Structural Dynamics: Free and forced vibration of discrete systems. Damping and resonance. Dynamics of continuous systems.

16. Aerodynamics. Basic Fluid Mechanics: Incompressible irrotational flow, Helmholtz and Kelvin theorem, singularities and superposition, viscous flows, boundary layer on a flat plate. Airfoils and wings: Classification of airfoils, aerodynamic characteristics, high lift devices, Kutta Joukowski theorem; lift generation; thin airfoil theory; wing theory; induced drag; qualitative treatment of low aspect ratio wings. Viscous Flows Flow separation, introduction to turbulence, transition, the structure of a turbulent boundary layer. Compressible Flows: Dynamics and Thermodynamics of I-D flow, isentropic flow, normal shock, oblique shock.

I hope this article is useful for the candidates who are preparing for the AFCAT Examination. Feel free to comment with any kind of query.